A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
- SACRAMENTAL TOKENS
- - See Communion Tokens
- SAND-BLASTED DIES
- - Dies that have been sand blasted so that the resultant coin product has a granular or
- SANDBLAST PROOF
- - Made by blowing fine particles of sand against the coins surface, similar in
appearance to a matte proof. See also Whizzing.
- SATIN SURFACES
- - See Lustre.
- - See Common, Rare, Scarcer than common but not as difficult as rare.
- - A deep line or groove in a coin caused by careless contact with a sharp or rough
object (eg. a staple from a coin holder). May significantly lower the value of the coin.
- - The paper money counterpart of tokens, being issued without government authority
during a temporary shortage of coin or government paper.
- -The difference between the cost of the bullion plus minting expenses and the value as
money of the pieces coined.
- SEMI-KEY DATES
- - The second most difficult dates to locate in a particular series. The most difficult
dates are key Dates and the most common or easiest are Common Dates.
- SEMI REGAL ISSUE
- - Coinage produced with the authority of a local government, eg. as with Nova Scotia
Semi Regal Tokens during 1823-43, but without the knowledge and authority of the home
British Government. Those coins having the backing of the home government are called Regal
- SELLER'S FEE
- - A fee charged the seller of a coin at an auction. usually 10% of the sale price but
can be lower depending on the volume of coins consigned by the seller for that auction.
See also Buyer's Fee.
- - One coin of each year issued from each mint of a specified design and denomination,
eg. George V Ten Cents 1911-1936.
- SERRATED COINS
- - Called Numi Serrati, from Serra, a saw. Such coins have toothed edges.
- - Misnomer applied to certain border patterns or the edge of a silver coin.
- - See Collection. Common forms of sets are Date, Type, and Year Sets.
- SET PREMIUM
- - A price premium charged for a complete set of coins, usually only on those sets of the
finest quality usually available or sets that are likely without competition in terms of
overall quality. In sum, the complete set is worth more than the sum of its individual
parts to a collector or connoisseur who wants such a set and feels that it may be
impossible to build a comparable one in a reasonable period of time.
- - See Adjustment.
- SET-UP TRIALS
- - See Adjustment.
- SHELDON GRADING SYSTEM
- - A grading scheme introduced by Dr. William Sheldon in the late 1940's and was based on
a numerical rather than adjectival scale with gradation from 1 to 70. Originally developed
for US Copper but has since been adopted for all other coinage of Canada and the US by
both the CNA and ANA. The uncirculated range is from Basic Uncirculated MS-60 (MS - Mint
State) to Perfect Uncirculated MS-70. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Mint State
- - An adjective often used to describe a certain quality of lustre on a coin. Opposite to
the meaning of lustre that appears "dead, flat or dull."
- - See Fractional Currency.
- SHIPS, COLONIES AND COMMERCE TOKENS
- - A series of copper tokens issued in the early part of the nineteenth century for use
in Canada. They are so-called from the inscription on one side, the reverse bearing a ship
or a bust. There are about fourty minor varieties.
- SIEGE PIECES
- - Coins struck during siege, also called obsidional coins or money of necessity.
- SILICA GEL
- - A highly absorbent gelatinous form of silica. Used for humidity control in a closed
area, eg. in the storage of coins, etc.
- - A metallic element which has played a great role in the world's coinage systems. It
was first employed for the coins in Aegina about the seventh century B.C.
- SILVER CANCER
- - See Horn Silver.
- SILVER COIN
- - A coin of homogenous alloy consisting of more than 50% silver content. Until 1919,
Canadian silver coins were 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. From 1920-1966 they were 80%
silver, the rest copper and in 1967 some denominations were reduced further to 50% silver.
from 1968 all denominations have been 100% nickel.
- SILVER TARNISH
- - See Toning.
- - A numismatic item, the rarity or future value of which is not generally recognized.
such a coin will be underpriced in current markets relative to coins more common.
- - A coin, medal, or token actually below the grade indicated, but close; eg., a very
nice About Uncirculated offered as a full uncirculated. also Borderline, Marginal.
- - See Green Slime.
- - A term applied to the $50, gold coin issued by various private mints in California
from 1851 to 1855 occurring in both round and octagonal shapes. Also tokens manufactured
expressly for use in certain coin-operated machines. Also a blank occasionally mistaken
for a coin planchet.
- SOFT STRIKE
- - Same as Weak Strike.
- - Reference to a coin, token or medal that has been soldered or "welded" to
something else as in coins to a bracelet or necklace ornament. The point of solder contact
usually causes damage to the coin.
- SOU TOKENS
- - A series of tokens issued by the Bank of Montreal to supply small change when private
coppers and brass pieces previously current in Canada were demonetized.
- SOUVENIR COIN
- - A token of a commemorative or promotional character which may purport to have some
limited exchange value.
- SPECIAL FEATURE
- - Usually in reference to quality uncirculated coins and specifically relating to some
aspect of a coin's condition not normally seen and for which an extra premium in price
might exist, eg. toning, first-strike fields, cameo bust, etc.
- - One who specializes in a particular coin series and develops knowledge usually unknown
to a generalist and usually not in print for the public to access easily. See
- - Money in the form of coin.
- - A coin prepared with special care as an example of a given issue. The highest quality
specimens are Proofs but until 1973 the Royal Canadian Mint did not have the capability to
do this. Canadian specimens have been matte (and semi-matte) with a granular, dull or
monotone surface and also brilliant with mirror fields and a frosted raised portion. Also
a synonym for a numismatic item, eg. a very rare specimen meaning example.
- SPLIT GRADE
- - See Intermediate Grade.
- - A false piece made to deceive, often an original creation rather than a copy of a
known item. Not genuine. Counterfeit. False.
- SQUARE RIM
- - A requirement of a Proof coin. The square flat or "wire" rim is a result of
the intense pressure used in striking proof coins. The pressure forced the metal to flow
out to the rims, to the limiting confines of the collar die. This was a thick cylinder
which prevented the planchet from expanding too far outward during the striking of the
coin. The rims thus have a more finished, square look, as opposed to the more rounded rims
of a business strike. Occasionally a tiny amount of the metal squeezed past the collar die
and appears as a very thing upraised "wire" edge on the rim of the coin. Also
- STANDARD COIN
- - A coin originally issued with an intrinsic value equal to its face value or which was
to pass for its intrinsic value.
- - See Underpriced.
- - A series of parallel and thin lines. See Die Polishing Lines, and Planchet Striations.
- - To stamp the coin design onto a blank. Also one of the grading criteria of a coin and
may vary from a full strike in which all of the intended design detail of the engraver
shows to a very soft or weak strike where one or more areas of the coin display less than
- - A chemical that reacts with various metals, especially silver and copper and results
in a coating forming over the surface of the metal giving it a coloured appearance.
- SULPHURATED HOLDER
- - A coin holder (usually envelope) containing sulphur traces. coins stored in them will
have a tendency to tone over time because of the sulphur presence. Higher temperatures and
humidity levels will speed up the amount of the toning that appears in a given time.
- - Reference to a coin, token, or medal that is truly an exceptional uncirculated
example. Usually displays a superior than typical lustre, surface condition and strike to
normally seen uncirculated examples. Commonly graded as MS-67 on the numerical scale.
- SURFACE RESIDUE
- -A milky white coating left on the surface of a coin after an attempt has been made to
remove heavy dark tarnish or also improperly rinsing a coin in hot water after being
treated with "dip" etc.
- SWEATING COINS
- - This was a way of obtaining flecks of gold from gold coins without their being
obviously reduced in metallic content. The gold coins were placed in a small container and
then shaken together so that they would scrape each other. this removed flecks of the gold
without being so obvious as the clipping technique (see Clipping). Given enough coins, the
method could yield several dollars in gold beyond the face value of the coins being worn
in this way.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z